10 Parts Of Motherboard And Their Function

The motherboard is one of the most important components of the computer and knowing about the testing a motherboard is even more important.

Some experts also name it the main printed circuit board (PCB), and the main function of the motherboard is to provide central connections between all the parts of the computer so that they can operate as one unit without any problem. 

The motherboard has various components, including chipsets, CPUs, memory slots, ports and. The main thing is that motherboards are connected to all parts of the computers directly or indirectly, but the main question is: What are the Parts Of Motherboard And Their Function?

Motherboards require different components to operate, each of which has its importance. If you are willing to know about What is a motherboard and its components? Then we have brought you all the relevant information about the motherboard that you might need to know. 

In this article, we will understand the motherboard and its components. So let’s get started.

Where Is The Motherboard Located?

The motherboard is easy to spot because it is the biggest printed circuit board you can find on the computer. The location of the motherboard might be different based on your PC configuration, but usually, they are found in the center of the computer.

You will find that they look like a mini model of a city where PCIe lanes are the highway. Motherboards have ports, so one part of them must touch the corners of the PC.

Additional Resources On Motherboard

What Are The Main Components Of the Motherboard?

Do many people want to know the five components of a motherboard? And about the fact that What ram is compatible with motherboards. But the truth is that motherboards have a lot more components than that. Usually, there are more than 20 components in the motherboard, and they all serve different purposes.

If you want to know the importance of each component, then every component has its importance according to the work you are doing on them, but these are the 10 main components of a motherboard that you must know.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)


We all know that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the computer’s brain, and all the computer’s work is based on these components. It is responsible for turning the dating from use into machine-readable form, analyzing that data to know about the required processes and functions. 

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is also responsible for performing logical and mathematical tasks and has many other purposes. The computer’s work is impossible without the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU chip comes in different specifications, each of which has qualities. You can also change the Central Processing Unit (CPU) chip according to your preferences. 

Random Access Memory (RAM)


Who does not know about the importance of RAM? If you are making a list of the 6 components of a motherboard? Then RAM would be included in that list without any second thought. RAM is not specifically the component of the motherboard but is bought separately.

The reason to treat the RAM as the component of the motherboard is that RAM fits on the motherboard to operate. The RAM is responsible for storing the currently active data so that the computer does not have to fetch it from the hard drive. 

In simple words, you can say that the RAM is the working area of the computer where the programs from the warehouse are stored temporarily when they are working. RAM is volatile, meaning it loses all the data once the computer is turned off.

When you turn off the computer properly, all the data in RAM is returned properly, and on the next start-up, it can quickly fill the data according to requirements. There are generally 2 or 4 RAM slots in the motherboard, and you can install as much RAM as you like.

Basic Input / Output System (BIOS)

Basic Input  Output System

You might have come across the word BIOS, which generally refers to the working of a computer system before the operating system starts. It is a simple-to-understand software that acts as a bridge between the operating system and the hardware of a computer.

If any unwanted event happens when the OS is not responding, then the BIOS settings are used to repair or reinstall the windows. 

BIOS are commonly known as the device driver or simply the drivers. They are stored in a small memory block of ROM (Read Only Memory), and it is separated from the regular system memory.

The BIOS has all the information about the basic controls of the keyboard, screen, disk drives, and ports, and one of their main functions is to check the system’s integrity before the OS starts.

CMOS Battery – Parts Of Motherboard And Their Function

CMOS Battery - Parts Of Motherboard And Their Function

CMOS is a motherboard component that works all the time, even when the computer is turned off and requires a battery to operate. CMOS are important components of the motherboard because they store all the essential and minor information such as the date and time, CPU information, general settings, passwords, connections, etc.

With the CMOS, you would have to reconfigure these settings every time you start the computer, which would be time-consuming and annoying.

Computer Cache Memory

Computer Cache Memory

Cache memory is a high-speed memory, and many experts suggest it as the secondary memory of the motherboard.

The purpose of cache memory is to enhance the PC’s performance by loading the information from memory before its use and sending it to the processor at the exact time required. Cache memory decreases the load on memory by sharing the loads. 

Many motherboards come with pre-installed primary cache memory, also known as L1, and you can increase it by external memory, which would be L2. For most gaming motherboards, L1 and L2 are installed in the processor die, and the users can extend it to L3 depending upon their preferences.

Expansion Buses

The Expansion Buses

Expansion buses are responsible for connecting the motherboard with the peripheral devices and are made of slots. PCI is one of the most common expansion buses you can find on a motherboard; They are an important tool to deliver useful information to their destination, including data, memory addresses, power, and control signals. 

The expansion buses also help the user to enhance their PC’s performance by adding extra components and features with the help of an adaptor card.

Computer Chip-Set 

Computer Chip-Set

The computer chipset is a collection of small circuits and devices responsible for controlling data flow in the right direction at the right time.

These compute chipsets coordinate with CPU, memory, cache memory, and other devices on the computer. Modern computers have two main chipsets, and these are northbridge and southbridge.

Northbridge is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and information between the processor and RAM and is located near the processor. It is also called a memory controller and has the function of graphics and memory controls. 

Southbridge is responsible for controlling the transfer of data between the peripheral devices and is also called ICH, which means I/O Controller Hub.

CPU Clock

CPU Clock

The CPU clock is responsible for controlling all the operations of all CPU parts and ensuring they are synchronized. It provides the CPU’s basic timing control and ensures that the microprocessor is working properly by feeding the constant pulses.

It synchronizes the working of the processor and the software and allows the operating system to work properly according to the requirements.

I / O Port

I  O Port

Input and output ports are also among the motherboard’s most important parts; without them, the PC can not be equipped with a mouse, keyboard, and other components.

There are different types of I/O ports, such as USB ports, HDMI ports, VGVI ports, etc., and it is preferred for the users to select the motherboard that has more ports. Hence, here we will decipher the motherboard I/o port and the point that how much is a motherboard.

Memory-mapped I/O (MMIO) and port-mapped I/O (PMIO) are the two methods on which the input and output system works. Input and output ports are designed to connect various other devices to the computer so the information can be passed easily. 

Power Supply Connector

Power Supply Connector

The power the name suggests, the power supply connector is the platform used to connect the external power source to the computer. It is probably the essential part of the motherboard, without which nothing can work.

There can be different types of power sources based on the system’s power requirement, and the general configuration is a 110 Volt ac supply and 12 volts, 5 volts, 3.3 volts DC supply. 

Another Important Component Of Motherboard

There are various other components of the motherboard besides these main components, which are very important for the smooth working of the computer. Some of the other components are:

  • AGP slot is useful in a high-speed video card to the computer and assists the user in 3D computer graphics.
  • Parallel Ports are used for attaching high-power peripheral devices to the computer, including printers, screens, etc. parallel ports can send more data at a time and are ideal for large data transfer.
  • Floppy disk controllers are legacy motherboard components designed to read the floppy devices and store the data on them. Their use and working on the motherboard is limited due to the low use of floppies.
  • The IDE controller is the motherboard part that connects the computer with wifi, ethernet, USB, and other connections. 
  • The DIP line is used to make the connection between electronic devices within the motherboard and customize their behavior and working.
  • The heat sink is responsible for taking the excess heat that the motherboard produces out of the system. Heat sink generally transfers heat to a fluid medium and employs thermal paste for quick transfer.

Why Are The Slots And Connections Different Colors?

Usually, when there are 4 memory slots for RAM, you will see that the color is in pairs. Generally, the 2nd and 4th have the same color, and the 1st and 3rd have the same color.

The color difference indicates whether the RAM slot is a dual channel or a single channel. For maximum performance, it is necessary to install the RAM in the same color slot, and a dual channel is preferred. 

Motherboard Form Factors And Types

The form factor of the motherboard is the visible appearance and size. A form factor is an important parameter to consider when choosing the motherboard because a large form factor might not fit in a confined space, and a small form factor might have limited capabilities.

These are some of the most common motherboard form factors in the decreasing order of their size:

  • Standard ATX ( 12 × 13 in dimensions)
  • Micro ATX ( 9.6 × 9.6 inches Dimensions)
  • Mini ITX (6.7 × 6.7 inches dimensions)
  • Nano ITX (4.7 × 4.7 inches dimensions)
  • Pico ITX (3.9 × 2.8 inches dimensions)


In this article, we have briefly discussed some of the most Parts Of the Motherboard And Their Function and purpose. The CPU is the most important component, and it truly makes the computer a computing device that can process commands and programs.

RAM is also an important part of the motherboard; it stores the current working data to access it easily. 

BIOS are responsible for simply working on a system without an OS, ensuring that the PC works fine. CMOS stores necessary information about a computer, such as time and date and computer information, so that it does not have to be reset after every start.

Other than that, there is cache memory to increase working speed, expansion buses to provide connectivity, a computer chipset to control the working, a CPU clock to synchronize everything, an I/O port to connect external devices, and a power supply to power the computer.

We have also discussed other equipment and the importance of form factors in motherboards.


What are the 2 main components of a motherboard?

The two primary components of a motherboard are CPU and RAM because, without them, the computer can not work and can not do simple tasks. These components are necessary for even the most outdated motherboards.

What are the components of a motherboard in a computer?

A motherboard has various components, each of which has its purpose. Some are used to perform tasks, some as connections, some to store data, and some to connect with external devices and components. 

What are the components of the North Bridge on a motherboard?

Northbridge is also known as a memory controller hub, and the main purpose of northbridge is to control the flow of data and information between the processor and memory. It also controls ROM, BIOS, PCI Express, and other memory-based units in the motherboard.

What are the internal components of a motherboard?

There are many internal components of the motherboard, including the connections for input and output devices, chipsets, RAM slots, and CPU, all of which have their distinct functions. The motherboard can not run properly without these components, and as a result, the performance of the computer would be affected.

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Usman Haider
Usman is a writing author who focuses on making well-researched content. With a keen eye for detail and a gift for locating the foremost attention-grabbing stories to share, he is devoted to crafting articles that educate and entertain her readers. Whether or not he’s writing concerning the newest fashion trends or sharing recommendations on beginning a little business, her goal is usually to tell and encourage her audience. With her distinctive voice and interesting style, he could be a rising star in online writing.
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